309. Clauses introduced by quamvīs, quamquam, etsī, tametsī, cum, although, while often classed as 'Concessive,' are yet essentially different from genuine Concessive clauses. As a rule, they do not grant or concede anything, but rather state that something is true in spite of something else. They accordingly emphasize the adversative idea, and are properly Subordinate Adversative Clauses. The different particles used to introduce these clauses have different meanings and take different constructions, as follows:—
1. Quamvīs, however much, although, does not introduce a statement of fact, but represents an act merely as conceived. It is followed by the Subjunctive, usually of the present tense Adversative Clauses with Quamvīs, Quamquam, etc.; as,—
hominēs quamvīs in turbidīs rēbus sint, tamen interdum animīs relaxantur, in however stirring events men may engage, yet at times they relax their energies;
nōn est potestās opitulandī reī pūblicae quamvīs ea premātur perīculīs, there is no opportunity to succor the state, though it be beset by dangers.
2. Quamquam, etsī, tametsī, although, introduce a statement of fact, and are followed by the Indicative (of any tense); as,—
quamquam omnis virtūs nōs allicit, tamen jūstitia id maximē efficit, although all virtue attracts us, yet justice does so especially;
Caesar, etsī nōndum cōnsilium hostium Adversative Clauses with Quamvīs, Quamquam, etc. cognōverat, tamen id quod accidit suspicābātur, Caesar, though he did not yet know the plans of the enemy, yet was suspecting what actually occurred.
a. Etsī, although, must be distinguished from etsī, even if. The latter is a conditional particle and takes any of the constructions admissible for sī. (See §§ 302-304.)
3. Cum, although, is followed by the Subjunctive; as,—
Atticus honōrēs nōn petiit, cum eī patērent, Atticus did not seek honors, though they were open to him.
4. Licet sometimes loses its verbal force (see § 295, 6) and sinks to the level of a conjunction with Adversative Clauses with Quamvīs, Quamquam, etc. the force of although. It takes the Subjunctive, Present or Perfect; as,—
licet omnēs terrōrēs impendeant, succurram, though all terrors hang over me, (yet) I will lend aid.
5. Quamquam, with the force and yet, is often used to introduce principal clauses; as,—
quamquam quid loquor, and yet why do I speak?
6. In post-Augustan writers quamquam is freely construed with the Subjunctive, while quamvīs is often used to introduce statements of fact, and takes either the Indicative or the Subjunctive. Thus:—
quamquam movērētur hīs vōcibus, although he was moved by these words Adversative Clauses with Quamvīs, Quamquam, etc.;
quamvīs multī opīnārentur, though many thought;
quamvīs īnfēstō animō pervēnerās, though you had come with hostile intent.